Special lines in a triangle

If the coordinates of the three edges of a triangle are entered, the program calculates the equations of the perpendicular bisectors[1], of the side bisectors[2], of the angle bisectors[3] and of the altitudes[4]. In addition, the centers and radii of the circumcircle[5], of the incircle[6] and of the three excircles[7].

A list of check boxes can be used to select which objects should be calculated and drawn.

Example 1: incircle and excircles of a triangle

Given:
¯¯¯¯¯¯
      Edges:    A(1|0)   B(5|1)   C(3|6)
 
Results:
¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
   Vertices:   a :  5·x + 2·y = 27
                    b :  3·x - y = 3
                    c :  x - 4·y = 1
 
   Incircle:    Mi(3,119|1,962)         r i = 1,390  
 
Excircles:    Ma(7,626|6,136)       ra = 4,346
                   Mb(-4,356|5,784)      rb = 6,910
                   Mc(3,248|-2,427)      rc = 2,900

The center of the incircle (green) lies on the bisector of the three interior angles. The centers of the circles (red) are each on the bisector of an inner angle and on the bisector of the outside angle of the other two triangle angles. These construction lines are also drawn.

Example 2: Altitudes in an obtuse-angled triangle

Given:
¯¯¯¯¯¯
       Edges:  A(7|3)   B(16|10)  C(8|9)
 
Results:
¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
    Vertices:   a : -x + 8·y = 64
                     b : 6·x - y = 39
                     c : 7·x - 9·y = 22
 
   Altitudes:  ha : 8·x + y = 59
                    hb : x + 6·y = 76
                    hc : 9·x + 7·y = 135
  
 Perp. feet: Ha(6,277|8,785)  Hb(8,378|11,27)
	           Hc(10,53|5,746

Orthocenter: H(11,05|8,26)

The intersection of the altitudes of an obtuse-angled triangle lies outside the triangle. The construction lines are also drawn. In order to make them more visible, the grid lines have been hidden.

See also:

Setting the graphic
Wikipedia: Incircle and excircles of a triangle

 
[1]  The perpendicular bisectors are the straight lines, which intersect one side of the triangle vertically at its center. Their intersection point is the center of the perimeter.
[2]  The side bisectors are the line segments from an edge of the triangle to the center of the opposite side. Their intersection point is the center of gravity of the triangle.
[3]  The angle bisectors, as their name suggests, halves one of the inner angles of the triangle. Their intersection point is the center of the triangle's incircle.
[4]  The altitudes are the plumb lines from one corner of the triangle to the opposite side. Their intersection point is called the triangle's orthocenter.
[5]  The circumcircle of a Triangle is the circle through the edges of the triangle. In an acute-angled triangle, its center lies inside, in an obtuse-angled triangle it lies outside the triangle.
[6]  The incircle is the circle that touches the three sides of the triangle from the inside. Its center is the intersection of the angle bisectors.
[7]  The excircles touch one triangle side from the outside and are tangentially touched by the extensions of the other two sides.